Commercial courts

the Supreme Commercial Court of the Russian Federation

(the Plenum, the Presidium, the Department of Civil Cases, and the Department of Administrative Cases)

Federal Territorial Commercial Courts (10 )

appellate commercial courts (20)

commercial courts of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation (81)

specialised commercial courts (e.g. courts for intellectual property since June 2013)

Exercise 23

Make a diagram to describe the work of the Constitutional court. Read the text below. For additional information go to

Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation is a judicial body of constitutional review. The rules of the operation of the Constitutional Court are determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the Federal Constitutional Law on the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

The Constitutional Court consists of 19 judges. They are appointed by the Federation Council upon nomination by the President of the Russian Federation. The court is presided by the President and two Vice-presidents. The Constitutional Court performs its functions if no less than three quarters of the total number of Judges are in office.

The proceeding before the constitutional court can be initiated by the president, parliament or a group of members of parliament comprising a fifth of all members of the State Duma or the Council of the Federation, the Government, the Supreme Court, the Supreme Commercial Court, legislative and executive bodies of the Subjects of the Federation.

Decisions of the Constitutional Court are obligatory throughout the territory of the Russian Federation for all representative, executive and judicial bodies of state power, local self-government, enterprises, organizations, public officials, citizens and their associations.

Exercise 24